tesoro exclusivo de la lengua española

La técnica de comunicar con la palabra hablada, emitida sin leer, tiene un precedente en la obra grabada por Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente en Radio Nacional de España (RNE) y Televisión Española (TVE), locutada por él sin haber sido escrita entre 1965 y 1980. Una labor de comunicación exitosa. Hizo que la conciencia ambiental naciera en España. 

En su caso no necesitó clonar su voz con inteligencia artificial para lograr locutar con la voz natural, sin leer, más de 600 guiones de media hora sobre divulgación científica compleja y variada. Fue capaz de generar esa producción de forma analógica, es decir, creando en su mente el discurso, y grabándolo directamente, a micrófono abierto, en los estudios de RTVE. De esa técnica conocemos los resultados, espectaculares, pero no su estructura y otras variables, a investigar en el proceso de digitalizacíón de su voz.

No hay que construir un prototipo y perfeccionarlo para conseguir un resultado. El caso reciente de Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente constituye el núcleo experimental del proyecto “Voz clonada sin leer” (VOZ CSL), La tarea en este proyecto de Voz CSL es desmenuzar y analizar las piezas de ese modelo, ya existente, cuyo resultado conocemos, de modo que sabemos a qué nivel podemos aspirar, pero que hasta ahora nadie investigó, y esconde claves de la fórmula de comunicación capaz de generar un fenómeno de masas.

¿Capacidades perdidas?

 

Es posible, como decimos en el apartado ‘Justificación’ de este proyecto, que la IA, lo que permite es recuperar técnicas y capacidades de comunicación perdidas, como las que investiga el proyecto Artsoundscapes (2018–2026) de Margarita Andreu y su equipo, que examina con un enfoque multidisciplinar innovador, cómo el sonido puede haber contribuido –antes de que la domesticación de lo libre cambiara el mundo hace 7.000 años– a la comprensión de lo sagrado en sitios con arte rupestre y a la creencia en el paisaje como un ser vivo, con alma, por parte de los cazadores–recolectores paleolíticos.

El proyecto “Artsoundscapes” , del que hemos extraído más abajo una serie de párrafos en inglés de su página Web para ilustrar su labor, pero a la que remitimos a quien quiera conocer con precisión este gran proyecto, investiga capacidades acústicas desconocidas del hombre primigenio.

Reseña del  proyecto vanguardista «ARTSOUNDSCAPES»  ya en curso

ARTSOUNDSCAPES  –an ERC Advanced grant project, led by Prof. Margarita Díaz-Andreu– propose a phenomenological understanding of sound, rock art and sacred landscapes among late hunter-gatherers around the world. (…) «Despite the aural experience being an integral component of the human condition and a key element in ritual, archaeology has largely been unable to study it systematically». 

«The potential of sound to stimulate powerful emotions makes it a common medium for conferring places with extraordinary agency. Ethnographic and ethnohistorical sources indicate that these sites are often endowed with a sacred significance and, in many cases they also receive special treatment, including the production of rock art.»

«Human experiences associated with altered or mystical states invoked by the identified special sonic characteristics of these landscapes will be further tested by exploring the psychoacoustic effects these soundscapes have on people and their neural correlate to brain activity” 

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Psychoacustic in the «ARTSOUNDSCAPES» project

Psychoacoustics is an interdisciplinary field between physical acoustics and psychology concerned with how humans perceive and interpret sound. This distinction between perception and interpretation of sound is relevant in landscape studies. Sound perception is cognitively neutral. In contrast, auditory interpretation reflects superiority, fit, and the listeners level of appreciation. 

«. The former depends on the physiological mechanism of hearing by which many perceptual properties of sound (e.g. loudness, duration, location) are extracted from the spectral contents, 

«temporal patterns, and spatial distribution of acousticsignals reaching the ears.

In contrast, sound interpretation relies on the higher-level functions of the auditory system. «

These are influenced by several conscious and unconscious factors, such as attitudes, beliefs, judgments, habits and familiarity with sounds. 

The perception vs. interpretation dichotomy raises critical issues to be considered in research methodology. It is possible to explore the psychoacoustics of our rock art landscapes by gathering information from the external world (i.e.

«acoustical physical measurements) and from the listeners themselves (i.e. by means of live psychoacoustic tests). 

The Artsoundscapes project propose to pioneer in the field of archaeoacoustics by applying both methods. In carrying out the psychoacoustic tests, the Artsoundscapes PI will be assisted by Prof. Carles Escera, a renowned cognitive auditory neuroscientist with considerable experience in carrying out auditory research, including psychoacoustic methodologies 

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Measuring phsiological responses to sound

in the «ARTSOUNDSCAPES» project

Psychoacoustics is an interdisciplinary field between physical acoustics and psychology concerned with how humans perceive and interpret sound. This distinction between perception and interpretation of sound is relevant in landscape studies. Sound perception is cognitively neutral. In contrast, auditory interpretation reflects superiority, fit, and the listeners level of appreciation. 

«The former depends on the physiological mechanism of hearing by which many perceptual properties of sound (e.g. loudness, duration, location) are extracted from the spectral contents, 

temporal patterns, and spatial distribution of acousticsignals reaching the ears.

In contrast, sound interpretation relies on the higher-level functions of the auditory system. «

These are influenced by several conscious and unconscious factors, such as attitudes, beliefs, judgments, habits and familiarity with sounds. 

The perception vs. interpretation dichotomy raises critical issues to be considered in research methodology. It is possible to explore the psychoacoustics of our rock art landscapes by gathering information from the external world (i.e.

«acoustical physical measurements) and from the listeners themselves (i.e. by means of live psychoacoustic tests). 

The Artsoundscapes project propose to pioneer in the field of archaeoacoustics by applying both methods. In carrying out the psychoacoustic tests, the Artsoundscapes PI will be assisted by Prof. Carles Escera, a renowned cognitive auditory neuroscientist with considerable experience in carrying out auditory research, including psychoacoustic methodologies 

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the  aim of the «ARTSOUNDSCAPES» project is to explain how acoustics played a role im the productios of rock art paintings

«Specifically, members of the project with backgrounds in archaeology and acoustical engineering are testing whether rock art landscapes have different acoustics compared to similar landscapes without rock art. This would indicate that premodern societies were considering soundscapes to produce these ancient paintings. But why would they? In the project, we believe that one potential answer is the emotional state that sounds produce in certain acoustic environments.

The Artsoundscapes project has research lines in psychoacoustics and neuroscience. In these we measure the psychological and physiological reactions of modern participants to the rock art soundscapes. Archaeologists tell us that these places were not for domestic use, but instead had a symbolic significance for the people who created and used them. Therefore, we aim to explore whether the psychological and physiological reaction to acoustics is similar to feelings and brain patterns related to transcendence and meditation. The limitation we face regarding the differences between premodern populations and today’s modern humans has already been discussed in a previous blog (https://www.ub.edu/artsoundscapes/measuring-emotions-to-understand-ancient-communities/). 

 

«Here, we will tackle another endeavour within the project: how can we measure mental states with electroencephalo– graphy? (…)

The approach consists on measuring physiological responses to sound. Physiological measurements involve registering changes in biological systems that are caused by emotional processes. Two commonly used non-invasive techniques are the measurement of both the electrodermal activity (EDA) and the heart rate (HR). Skin conductance or electrodermal activity measurements detect changes in the skin’s electrical conductivity. Variations in skin resistance relate to sweating, a process controlled by our sympathetic nervous system, and they are an indication of psychological or physiological arousal. For example, an increase of skin conductance means a change in participants’ emotional response. This can be used to study aspects such as attention, cognition and affect, and it is associated with emotional arousal and stressful states. A physiological arousal can appear with the presence of a novel stimulus but also with the omission of something expected. The high sensitivity of this technique allows researchers to use it when measuring low arousal ranges in emotional responses. Heart rate (HR) measurements relate to changes in heart activity caused by emotional reactions. (…)

Under the auspices of the Artsoundscapes project, the building of the Immersive Psychoacoustics Laboratory (immpaLAB) was completed in July 2020 and will be inaugurated very soon. This facility will allow the team in charge of the Psychoacoustics and Neuropsychology Research Lines (RL2 and RL3) of the project to carry out experiments where participants will feel immersed in the desired acoustic environment, by rendering auditory stimulation with the sonic signature of selected rock art sites through a 3D-loudspeaker array, in order to explore enhanced emotional dimensions and even altered states of consciousness triggered in the listeners by these singular spaces. (…)

However, exploring the synchronisation between estimated signal generators can give us a deeper insight into how human experience is created beginning with simple electrical signals. The use of one technique or another will always depend on the research question at hand. (…)

We will use the techniques described here, among others, to investigate how rock art soundscapes might modulate mental states. The result of our work will be a phenomenological understanding of the role of acoustics in the production of rock art. 

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Neuropsychology in the «ARTSOUNDSCAPES» project 

«Sound and music are able to arouse exceptionally strong emotions and reliably affect the mood of individuals. The reason for this lies in very specific neural responses to these stimuli. The purpose of the neuropsychological tests in the Artsoundscapes project is to characterize the brain activity patterns elicited by the sounds recorded in 

 

selected rock art landscapes, as per RL1, and to determine whether these rock art sound processing neural correlates are comparable to those associated with altered or mystical states. This will be accomplished by running a series of electroencephalographic (EEG) experiments. In separate experiments, 

features such as audibility, echolocation and some other more specific parameters will be manipulated to ascertain whether a particular acoustic property identified in the tested rock art soundscape is more powerful in inducing altered brain states close to transcendence or meditation. 

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